elseif
FORMULA

The elseif statement allows multiple if decisions to be chained together.

Parameters

This statement has one parameter:

formula – is a formula that decides whether or not to execute the following statements. The result of this formula must be a Boolean (true/false) value.

Description

The elseif statement allows a series of decisions to be chained together so that one, and only one, of the decisions will be taken. The elseif statement must be combined with the if and endif statement, and can also be used with the else statement.

For example, suppose you want to ship a package, and you have seven different options for shipping the package. Only one of these can be used for any one package, so the elseif statement is perfect.

``````if shipMethod = "US Post Office"
Rate = 3.50
elseif shipMethod = "UPS Ground"
Rate = 5.00
elseif shipMethod = "UPS Blue"
Rate = 8.00
elseif shipMethod = "UPS Red"
Rate = 15.00
elseif shipMethod = "Fedex Ground"
Rate = 6.00
elseif shipMethod = "Fedex 2nd Day"
Rate = 9.00
elseif shipMethod = "Fedex Overnight"
Rate = 20.00
else
Rate = 25.00
endif
message "Shipping rate is "+Rate
``````

Panorama starts at the top and checks the shipping method for each if or elseif statement. Suppose that the shipping method is UPS Blue. Panorama will skip the `Rate = 3.50` and `Rate = 5.00` statements and set the rate to 8.00. It will then skip all the way to message statement at the end and display the rate.

The example above includes an else statement near the bottom. If an else statement is included, the statements below it will be executed only if none of the elseif formulas above are true. There must not be any elseif statements between the else and endif statements (unless they are nested between another if/endif pair, see below).

Note: Be careful to note that elseif is one word, not two. If you put a space between else and if the meaning is entirely different, and you’ll probably see errors you didn’t expect.

You can nest `if-elseif-else-endif` constructs, allowing for multiple levels of decisions like this:

``````if shipMethod = "US Post Office"
Rate = 3.50
elseif shipMethod = "UPS Ground"
Rate = 5.00
elseif shipMethod = "UPS Blue"
Rate = 8.00
elseif shipMethod = "UPS Red"
if Weight > 10
Rate = 50.00
elseif Weight > 5
Rate = 30.00
elseif Weight > 2
Rate = 20.00
else
Rate = 15.00
endif
elseif shipMethod = "Fedex Ground"
Rate = 6.00
elseif shipMethod = "Fedex 2nd Day"
Rate = 9.00
elseif shipMethod = "Fedex Overnight"
if Weight > 12
Rate = 75.00
elseif Weight > 6
Rate = 55.00
elseif Weight > 3
Rate = 40.00
else
Rate = 20.00
endif
else
Rate = 25.00
endif
message "Shipping rate is "+Rate
``````

Just make sure that the if-endif statements are matched up and you can nest as many levels deep as you want.

Note: The if-elseif-else-endif statements are very similar to the case defaultcase endcase statements. However, if-elseif-else-endif statements can be nested, while case statements cannot. The case statement is primarily included for compatibility with older Panorama versions. For new procedures we recommend that you use if-elseif-else-endif statements.

Error Messages

IF or ELSE without ENDIF – Each ELSEIF statement must be paired with a corresponding ENDIF statement. If this error message appears, the necessary endif statement has not been included.

ELSEIF does not have a matching IF statement – Each ELSEIF statement must be paired with a corresponding IF statement. If this error message appears, the necessary if statement has not been included.

• call -- allows a procedure to call a separate procedure within the current database as a subroutine.
• call( -- allows a procedure to be called as a subroutine within a formula and return a result.
• calledby( -- returns true if this function is in code called by the specified database, the specified procedure, or both.
• callerslocalvariablevalue( -- allows a subroutine to access a local variable in the procedure that called it.
• callingdatabase( -- returns the name of the database that called this procedure as a subroutine, if any.
• callingprocedure( -- returns the name of the procedure that called this procedure as a subroutine, if any.
• callwithin -- allows a procedure to call a mini-procedure within a separate procedure within the current database as a subroutine.
• callwithin( -- allows a "mini-procedure" to be called as a subroutine within a formula and return a result.
• callwithindatabase( -- returns true if the current procedure was called by another procedure in the same database, false if it was called by a procedure in another database.
• case -- allows multiple decisions to be chained together (also see the elseif statement).
• catch -- works with try and endcatch to trap errors in a sequence of statements.
• Custom Database Initialization -- using an .Initialize procedure to automatically run custom code when a database opens.
• debug -- stops the current program, allowing you to examine variables or single step.
• defaultcase -- works together with the case statement to specify statements that will be executed if none of the *case* statements are true.
• disableabort -- prevents loops from being stopped early by pressing SHIFT-COMMAND-ESCAPE or by exceeding the maximum allowed loop time.
• else -- works together with the if statement to specify statements that will be executed for both the *true* and *false* cases.
• enableabort -- allows the SHIFT-COMMAND-ESCAPE key sequence to stop an endless loop.
• endcase -- marks the end of statements controlled by a previoius case statement.
• endcatch -- works with try and catch to trap errors in a sequence of statements.
• endif -- marks the end of statements controlled by a previoius if statement.
• endloop -- is used at the end of a loop.
• Error Handling -- Techniques for trapping runtime errors instead of letting them abort the program.
• Error Wizard -- Advanced dialog for displaying program errors.
• execute -- allows a procedure to call a sequence of statements within the current procedure as a "mini-subroutine".
• execute( -- allows a formula to execute a sequence of statements and return a result.
• executeasap -- executes the specified code at the first possible opportunity, non-atomically.
• executecatcherrors -- is the same as the execute statement, except for the fact that if an error occurs while running, it can be trapped by an if error statement immediately following the executecatcherrors statement.
• executelocal -- is the same as the execute statement, but it shares local variables with the procedure that called it.
• farcall -- allows a procedure to call a separate procedure within a different database as a subroutine.
• farcallwithin -- allows a procedure to call a mini-procedure within a separate procedure in a different database as a subroutine.
• for -- is used at the beginning of a loop that loops a fixed number of times.
• goto -- allows a procedure to arbitrarily jump from one spot to another within the procedure.
• if -- decides what code to execute next.
• info("callerslocalvariables") -- returns a list of local variables defined in the procedure that called the current procedure.
• info("error") -- returns the most recent error message.
• info("labels") -- lists the labels in the current procedure.
• info("procedurestack") -- returns the contents of Panorama's procedure call stack.
• loop -- is used at the beginning of a loop.
• looparray -- is used at the beginning of a loop that loops over the elements of an array.
• loopdataarray -- is used at the beginning of a loop that loops over the elements of a data array.
• loopindex -- allows a procedure to determine how many times a loop has been repeated.
• loopwhile -- is used at the beginning of a loop.
• noimplicitassignment -- does nothing, and is only retained for compatibility with earlier versions.
• nop -- does nothing (**n**o **op**eration).
• onerror -- can be used to catch all errors that are not trapped by if error or try statements.
• onfailedresume -- is used to setup a semi-graceful recovery if a resume statement fails because there was no pause statement.
• parameter( -- is used to transfer data between a main procedure and a subroutine.
• pause -- temporarily pauses a procedure.
• Preventing Endless Loops -- setting up a timeout limit to prevent endless loops.
• quit -- quits Panorama.
• repeatloopif -- decides whether to continue with a loop or to start over again from the top.
• resume -- resumes a procedure that has been temporarily halted with the pause statement.
• return -- ends a subroutine.
• returnerror -- passes an error back to the current subroutines calling procedure.
• setcallerslocal -- allows a subroutine to modify a local variable in the procedure that called it.
• seterror -- changes the error message returned by info("error").
• setparameter -- is used to transfer data from a subroutine back to the main procedure that called it.
• setwaitinglocal -- assigns a value to a local variable in the parent procedure of an asynchronous task, allowing the asynchronouse code to pass a value back to the code that spawned it.
• shortcall -- allows a procedure to call a sequence of statements within the current procedure as a "mini-subroutine".
• stop -- stops all running procedures immediately.
• stoploopif -- decides whether to continue with a loop or to exit the loop immediately.
• throwerror -- causes an immediate error.
• try -- works with catch and endcatch to trap errors in a sequence of statements.
• until -- is used at the end of a loop, and can control how many times the loop is executed.
• usecallerslocalvariables -- temporarily swaps out a subroutine's current local variables with the local variables of the procedure that called this subroutine. The statement can be used only in a subroutine, not in a calling procedure.
• usefunctioncallerslocalvariables -- temporarily swaps out a procedures current local variables with the local variables of the procedure that called this the call(, callwithin( or execute( function.
• usemylocalvariables -- reverses the action of the UseCallersLocalVariables statement, switching back to the current procedure's normal local variables.
• waitfortask -- temporarily pauses a procedure until the specified task is complete.
• while -- is used at the end of a loop, and can control how many times the loop is executed.

History

 Version Status Notes 10.0 New New in this version.